ninth planet name

[185] He signed a statement with 34 other scientists saying, "We further believe the use of this term [Planet Nine] should be discontinued in favor of culturally and taxonomically neutral terms for such planets, such as Planet X, Planet Next, or Giant Planet Five. This would lower the eccentricity of Planet Nine and stabilize its orbit. Unlike the gas nebula, the planetesimal disk is likely to have been long lived, potentially allowing a later capture. With the OSSOS documenting over 800 trans-Neptunian objects and the DES discovering 316 new ones. Although other mechanisms have been offered for many of these peculiarities, the gravitational influence of Planet Nine is the only one that explains all four. In simulations conducted by Batygin and Brown, swarms of scattered disk objects with semi-major axes up to 550 AU that began with random orientations were sculpted into roughly collinear and coplanar groups of spatially confined orbits by a massive distant planet in a highly eccentric orbit. [129][130] Amir Siraj and Avi Loeb proposed a method for the Vera C. Rubin Observatory to detect flares from any low-mass black hole in the outer solar system, including a possible Planet Nine primordial black hole. Without the presence of Planet Nine, these orbits should be distributed randomly, without preference for any direction. Based on the new objects, the updated orbital parameters of hypothesized Planet Nine were:[84], Batygin was cautious in interpreting the results of the simulation developed for his and Brown's research article, saying, "Until Planet Nine is caught on camera it does not count as being real. [160] The project, which started on 28 March 2017, completed their goals in less than three days with around five million classifications by more than 60,000 individuals. Trujillo and Sheppard identified a clustering near zero degrees of the arguments of perihelion of the orbits of twelve TNOs with perihelia greater than 30 AU and semi-major axes greater than 150 AU. Further surveys of the remaining regions are ongoing using NEOWISE and the 8-meter Subaru Telescope. [71] Later investigations by Batygin et al. The planet's temporary name is 2003 UB313. In simulations conducted by Batygin and Morbidelli this evolution was relatively common, with 38% of stable objects undergoing it at least once. [44], Dynamical friction from a massive belt of planetesimals could also enable Planet Nine's capture in a stable orbit. Striking Biases in the Detection of Large Semimajor Axis Trans-Neptunian Objects", "New study deepens the controversy over Planet Nine's existence", "Orbital Clustering in the Distant Solar System", "Consequences of a Distant Massive Planet on the Large Semi-Major Axis Trans-Neptunian Objects", "On the Dynamics of the Inclination Instability", "This Week in Space: Weird Pluto and No Plan for Mars", https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/planet-nine-could-be-a-mirage/, "Planet Nine Might Not Actually Be a Planet", "Is the Elusive 'Planet Nine' Actually a Massive Ring of Debris in the Outer Solar System? [2][76] This is in rough agreement with observations with the differences attributed to distant encounters with the known giant planets. [54], Planet Nine modifies the orbits of eTNOs via a combination of effects. His work is considered similar to more recent Planet Nine theories in that the planets would be responsible for a clustering of the orbits of several objects, in this case the aphelion distances of periodic comets similar to that of the Jupiter-family comets. [29] Previously it was proposed that these objects originated in the Oort Cloud,[80] a theoretical cloud of icy planetesimals surrounding the Sun at distances of 2,000 to 200,000 AU. Konstantin Batygin and Michael E. Brown suggested that Planet Nine could be the core of a giant planet that was ejected from its original orbit by Jupiter during the genesis of the Solar System. The statistical significance of this correlation was 99.99%. [90][104], Ann-Marie Madigan and Michael McCourt postulate that an inclination instability in a distant massive belt is responsible for the alignment of the arguments of perihelion of the eTNOs. [124] They also struggled to explain the orbital alignment using a model with only one unknown planet, and therefore suggested that this planet is itself in resonance with a more-massive world about 250 AU from the Sun. Researchers have found evidence of a giant planet tracing a bizarre, highly elongated orbit in the outer solar system. I understand and agree that registration on or use of this site constitutes agreement to its User Agreement and Privacy Policy. "[90], Other authorities have varying degrees of skepticism. An undiscovered planet would affect the orbit of Saturn, not Cassini. They suggested that the correlation is due to the orbits of these objects avoiding close approaches to a massive planet by passing above or below its orbit. This causes orbital poles of the eTNOs on average to be tilted toward one side and their longitudes of ascending nodes to be clustered. “If you were to remove this explanation and imagine Planet Nine does not exist, then you generate more problems than you solve. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/hypothetical-planet-x/in-depth Astronomers can, of course, work to fold in a ninth planet (say, by arguing that it's an ejected failed core of a planet or a captured rogue exoplanet), but … [46], Planet Nine could have been captured from outside the Solar System during a close encounter between the Sun and another star. Holman and Payne suggested three possible explanations: systematic errors in the measurements of Pluto's orbit; an unmodeled mass in the Solar System, such as a small planet in the range of 60–100 AU (potentially explaining the Kuiper cliff); or a planet more massive or closer to the Sun instead of the planet predicted by Batygin and Brown. The existence of an [55][83] Recent estimates of a smaller mass and eccentricity for Planet Nine would reduce its effect on these inclinations. In a blog published later, Batygin and Brown constrained their estimate of the longitude of the ascending node to. A hypothetical planet that has been described as "the solar system's missing link," Planet 9 (also known as Planet X) has been part of the lexicon for several years, first mentioned in 2014. The Almanac editors decided to focus on the mythological names, akin to the other planets in our solar system. [92] Planetary scientist Hal Levison thinks that the chance of an ejected object ending up in the inner Oort cloud is only about 2%, and speculates that many objects must have been thrown past the Oort cloud if one has entered a stable orbit. to estimate that the mass of the original population was tens of Earth masses, requiring that a much larger mass had been ejected during the early Solar System. A ninth planet has long been hypothesised — and become the basis of some conspiracy theories — originally going under the name Planet X. At aphelion, the largest telescopes would be required, but if the planet is currently located in between, many observatories could spot Planet Nine. At this location, Planet Nine would be approximately 630 AU from the Sun,[163] with right ascension close to 2h and declination close to −20°, in Cetus. In their initial article, Batygin and Brown proposed that Planet Nine formed closer to the Sun and was ejected into a distant eccentric orbit following a close encounter with Jupiter or Saturn during the nebular epoch. Observations of the orbits of six small objects have led researchers to propose a very large 9th planet--100s of astronomical units (AU) away from the sun. If such a world exists, it would be the ninth major planet in the solar system. [163], An initial analysis by Fienga, Laskar, Manche, and Gastineau using Cassini data to search for Saturn's orbital residuals, small differences with its predicted orbit due to the Sun and the known planets, was inconsistent with Planet Nine being located with a true anomaly, the location along its orbit relative to perihelion, of −130° to −110° or −65° to 85°. They identify this planet as Planet Nine but propose a different orbit with an eccentricity e ≈ 0.5, inclination i ≈ 30°, argument of perihelion ω ≈ 150°, and longitude of ascending node Ω ≈ 50° (the last differs from Brown and Batygin's value of 90°). The name used during previous hunts for the long suspected giant, undiscovered object beyond Neptune is "Planet X." [65], A 2017 article by Carlos and Raul de la Fuente Marcos noted that distribution of the distances to the ascending nodes of the eTNOs, and those of centaurs and comets with large semi-major axes, may be bimodal. But Lopes … [54] A few of the high-inclination TNOs may become retrograde Jupiter Trojans. The planet, illustrated here, is far from the sun and thought to … This Planet Nine cloud, made up of the eTNOs and the perpendicular objects, would extend from semi-major axes of 200 AU to 3000 AU and contain roughly 0.3–0.4 Earth masses. [165], A later analysis of Cassini data by astrophysicists Matthew Holman and Matthew Payne tightened the constraints on possible locations of Planet Nine. [55] Previously Planet Nine was hypothesized to be responsible for the 6 degree tilt of the Sun's axis relative to the orbits of the planets,[56] but recent updates to its predicted orbit and mass limit this shift to ~1 degree. So let's say you discover it, because then you get to name it, which name would you give it? The timing of these occultations would provide precise astrometry of these objects enabling their orbits to be monitored for variations due to the tide from Planet Nine. One would have an average distance from the Sun, or semi-major axis, of 100 astronomical units (AU), 100 times that of the Earth. Shankman et al. If the eTNOs are in periodic orbits of the third kind,[L] with their stability enhanced by the libration of their arguments of perihelion, the planet could be in a higher inclination orbit, with i ≈ 48°. [36][43] Instead, its growth was halted early, leaving it with a lower mass than Uranus or Neptune. An article by Gomes, Soares, and Brasser was published in 2015, detailing their arguments. [70] Investigations by Cáceres et al. Pluto was long considered to be the ninth planet, but technically lost its status after an official definition for the term "planet" was created – with Pluto failing to meet the criteria. Two other objects with semi-major axes greater than 150 AU are also potentially in resonance with this planet. [164] In contrast, if the putative planet is near aphelion it would be located near right ascension 3.0h to 5.5h and declination −1° to 6°. [7][119] This massive planet would cause the arguments of perihelion of the TNOs to librate about 0° or 180° via the Kozai mechanism so that their orbits crossed the plane of the planet's orbit near perihelion and aphelion, the closest and farthest points from the planet. Two types of protection mechanisms are possible: The precession rate is slower for objects with larger semi-major axes and inclinations and with smaller eccentricities: Batygin and Brown provide an order of magnitude estimate for the mass. Computer simulations that took the hypothesized planet into account indicated that there should also be several other bodies with more extreme tilts from the solar plane, on the order of 90 degrees. In 2010, he even wrote a book about this event. American astrophysicist Ethan Siegel, who previously speculated that planets may have been ejected from the Solar System during an early dynamical instability, is skeptical of the existence of an undiscovered planet in the Solar System. For a planet in our solar system, being consistent means sticking to the theme of giving them names from Greek and Roman mythology. The planet could have coalesced out in the cold reaches of our system over millions of years, formed close to the sun and then been flung outward, or even been captured by the Sun from another system. This disk would contain 10 Earth-mass of TNOs with aligned orbits and eccentricities that increased with their semi-major axes ranging from zero to 0.165. Its orbit appears to be similar to the predictions made for Planet Nine's semi-major axis and it may serve as a proxy for Planet Nine that helps explain how such planetary orbits evolve. Holman and Payne concluded that Planet Nine is most likely to be located within 20° of RA = 40°, Dec = −15°, in an area of the sky near the constellation Cetus. showed that their orbits were more stable if Planet Nine had a smaller eccentricity, but that anti-alignment was more likely at higher eccentricities. [57][123] An analysis by Carlos and Raúl de la Fuente Marcos with Sverre J. Aarseth confirmed that the observed alignment of the arguments of perihelion could not be due to observational bias. Pluto is no longer considered a planet, and, while a ninth planet has recently been hypothesized, it has not yet been observed, so it has no name. Anonymous. It was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh. [90], Malena Rice and Gregory Laughlin have proposed that a network of telescopes be built to detect occultations by Jupiter Trojans. However, there are … David Gerdes, who helped develop the camera used in the Dark Energy Survey, claims that software designed to identify distant Solar System objects such as 2014 UZ224 could find Planet Nine if it was imaged as part of that survey, which covered a quarter of the southern sky. The orbits of the six objects were also tilted with respect to that of the ecliptic and approximately coplanar, producing a clustering of their longitudes of ascending nodes, the directions where they each rise through the ecliptic. However, it is unlikely that Planet Nine or any other conjectured planet beyond Neptune will be given the name Persephone once its existence is confirmed, as it is already the name for asteroid 399 Persephone. [114] Batygin thinks that there is insufficient mass in the Kuiper belt to explain the formation of the disk and asks "why would the protoplanetary disk end near 30 AU and restart beyond 100 AU? This article is about the hypothetical planet first suggested in 2014. Planet Nine would also explain why the plane in which the other planets orbit is tilted about six degrees away from the sun’s equator: over time, Planet Nine’s distant gravity has made the entire solar system plane wobble away from center. If such a world exists, it would be the ninth major planet in the solar system. A random distribution of this matter could also potentially have the same effect on the tilt on the traits observed in various orbits—but the jury is still out. About a year later, the International Astronomical Union ruled that Pluto and Eris were effectively too small to be called planets and renamed them dwarf planets. [169] Scott Sheppard, who is skeptical of this analysis, notes that many different forces influence the orbits of comets. [142][143] Michael Medford and Danny Goldstein, graduate students at the University of California, Berkeley, are also examining archived data using a technique that combines images taken at different times.
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